You may use a variety of publication formats and types for your resources, including articles, ebooks, AVON (Academic Videos Online), government documents, statistics, etc. Regardless of the format or type, whenever you use another person's ideas, words, opinions, videos, etc., you must include a citation to avoid plagiarism. In a research paper, sources will include 1) an in-text citation and 2) a citation in the "Works Cited" at the end of the paper.

MLA citation examples and resources are provided in the boxes below.

Many databases have citation tools, including the EBSCO databases, that allow you to copy and paste citations, then edit as needed. Always refer to the print style manual for complete citation formatting and punctuation guidelines. Follow your professor's recommendations.

MLA Style Manual

General Information for MLA 9th ed. & Citing Generative AI (ChatGPT)

For articles in databases, when a DOI  (opens new windowDigital Object Identifier) is not available, use the permalink, if available. A permalink is a URL that is static, persistent, or permanent. To get a permalink in EBSCOhost, click "Permalink" in the right sidebar under "Tools."

In MLA, the accessed date is not required, but may be provided if you wish. Check with your professor's guidelines.

  • For an online work, use a DOI, permalink, or URL.
  • Precede a DOI with http:// or https://. (i.e., https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.12223.) (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 194 [5.93])
  • For a URL https:// or http:// at the beginning may be omitted. (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 195 [5.95])
  • For a web source, copy the URL from the browser. The http:// or https:// may be omitted. (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 195 [5.95])
  • For articles in EBSCOhost, if the work is available in full text (not just the article abstract or record), use EBSCOhost as the container.  (Note: Databases within the EBSCOhost platform, such as Academic Search Complete or ERIC, are considered "filters," not the container.) (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., pp. 134-137 [5.31-34], for notes on website containers.)

Citing AI Tools (ChatGPT and Other Generative AI)

How do I cite generative AI [ChatGPT] in MLA style? (Note: Always follow your professor's instructions on the scope of using AI in your course.)

Citation Examples (MLA 9th ed.) - Journals & Magazines

Magazine article

Gliatto, Tom, et al. “1936-2017 Mary Tyler Moore. (Cover Story).” People, vol. 87, no. 7, Feb. 2017, pp. 54–62. EBSCOhost, https://oralroberts.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=121093537&site=ehost-live&scope=site. Accessed 29 Apr. 2020.

Journal article with URL

Fowler, Cary. “A ‘Doomsday’ Seed Vault to Protect the World’s Diversity.” Journal of International Affairs, vol. 67, no. 2, Spring/Summer 2014, pp. 141–146. EBSCOhost, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=95804642&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

For URLs the http:// or https:// at the beginning of the URL can be omitted unless you want to have a hyperlink. (See MLA Handbook, 9th ed. p. 195, [5.96])

Journal article with DOI

Monteith, Andrew. “Transhumanism, Utopia, and the Problem of the Real in Ready Player One.” Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, vol. 34, no. 1, Spr 2022, pp. 1–15. EBSCOhost, https://doi.org/10.3138/jrpc.2018-0054.

Latham, Laura S., et al. “Chocolate-Guilty Pleasure or Healthy Supplement?” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 16, no. 2, Feb. 2014, pp. 101–106.  EBSCOhost, https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.12223. 

 Precede a DOI with https://doi.org. (See MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 194, [5.93])

Print (hard copy) book

Allen, Joe, and Stephen K. Bannon. Dark Æon:Transhumanism and the War against Humanity. Skyhorse Publishing, 2023.


Johnson, Dru. What Hath Darwin to Do with Scripture? : Comparing Conceptual Worlds of the Bible and Evolution, InterVarsity Press, 2023. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/oru-ebooks/detail.action?docID=30541767.

Citation Examples - Song Lyrics, TV Scripts (MLA 8th ed.)

The examples below show elements to include in the citation. Use the print style manual and your professor's requirement to correctly format the citations.

Song Lyrics (from an album or CD)
Writer or lyricist last name, first name. “Song title.” Recording date. Album name. Recording label. Year of release.


Child, Desmond, Jon Bon Jovi, and Richard Sambora. “Livin’ on a Prayer.” Slippery When Wet. Island/Mercury, 2017.

Song Lyrics (from a website)
Writer or lyricist last name, first name. “Song title.”Website name,URL


Child, Desmond, Jon Bon Jovi, and Richard Sambora. “Livin’ on a Prayer.” SongLyrics, songlyrics.com/bon-jovi/livin-on-a-prayer-lyrics/.

Television Script
Writer. "Title of source." Title of container (in italics), series, episode, Title of second container (in italics), publisher, location.


Litt, David and Lee Aronsohn. "The Luminious Fish Effect." Big Bang Theory, story by Chuck Lorre and Bill Prady, series 01, episode 04. Big Bang Theory Transcripts, WordPress, bigbangtrans.wordpress.com/.

Television Script -No Writer/Author.


"The Big Bran Hypothesis."Big Bang Theory, series 01, episode 02, 5 Oct. 2007. Big Bang Theory Transcripts, Forever Dreaming,

In-Text Citations Without Page Numbers

When page numbers are not fixed (the numbers are not the same in all formats) or not available, use a label identifying abbreviation for the number reference. Use a comma to separate the author from a reference that is not a page number.


(Smith 27) page number 27
(Smith, par. 6) paragraph 6
(Smith, pars. 6-7) paragraphs 6 and 7
(Smith, ch. 4) chapter 4

MLA Handbook, 8th edition (pp. 36, 123-127) - Call number opens new windowLB2369.G53 2016
The Little, Brown Handbook, 13th edition (pp. 638-640) - Call number opens new windowPE1112.F644 2016.


What is a DOI?

The digital object identifier, or DOI, is a string of digits and letters that lead to the source location. DOIs are persistentlinks used in scientific and scholarly publishingto provide a permanent electronic address to avoid the problems of broken, outdated or changed links. opens new windowThe DOI System provides a means for managing informationin changingdigital environments. For example, if an article URL or resource services changes or moves, the DOI will link to the correct resource(s) on the Web. Journal articlesare often assigned DOIs, while magazine articles are not.

Where can I find the DOI?

In most recently published articles, the DOI is printed with the article, often on the first page in the header with other citation information, such as the title, authors and other publication information. It may also appear in the footer. In databases, if an article has a DOI it is usually included in the article record.

What if there is no DOI?

If a DOI is not provided in the article or with the article record, you can look it up on the website opens new windowCrossRef.org. Use the “Search Metadata” option to search the article title or author(s).

How do I find an article with the DOI?

If the DOI starts with http:// or https://, paste it into your web browser or go to opens new windowdoi.org and paste the DOI string (name).

DOIs and MLA

For MLA documentation, if a source, such as a journal article, has a DOI,use it instead of the persistent link (or URL). If there is no DOI, use the persistent link.

How do I write the DOI in a MLA citation?

The correct format for a citation is doi:10.xxxxx with no space after the colon.

by John Bond [YouTube 2:05 mins.]

Additional MLA Resources

MLA Style Center (Modern Language Association)

To organize key elements in your citation, use the opens new windowMLA Interactive Practice Template from MLA Handbook (8th ed.), PDF, by the Modern Language Association (style.mla.org),

- opens new windowHow to cite an online video?
- opens new windowUsing MLA Format
- opens new windowWorks Cited: A Quick guide
- FAQs, MLA Style Center