Always check the print style manual and your professor's recommendations for citation accuracy.

See: opens new windowCiting Sources: MLA Style

MLA Style Manual

General Information for MLA 9th ed. & Citing Generative AI (ChatGPT)

For articles in databases, when a DOI  (opens new windowDigital Object Identifier) is not available, use the permalink, if available. A permalink is a URL that is static, persistent, or permanent. To get a permalink in EBSCOhost, click "Permalink" in the right sidebar under "Tools."

In MLA, the accessed date is not required, but may be provided if you wish. Check with your professor's guidelines.

  • For an online work, use a DOI, permalink, or URL.
  • Precede a DOI with http:// or https://. (i.e., (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 194 [5.93])
  • For a URL https:// or http:// at the beginning may be omitted. (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 195 [5.95])
  • For a web source, copy the URL from the browser. The http:// or https:// may be omitted. (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 195 [5.95])
  • For articles in EBSCOhost, if the work is available in full text (not just the article abstract or record), use EBSCOhost as the container.  (Note: Databases within the EBSCOhost platform, such as Academic Search Complete or ERIC, are considered "filters," not the container.) (MLA Handbook, 9th ed., pp. 134-137 [5.31-34], for notes on website containers.)

Citing AI Tools (ChatGPT and Other Generative AI)

How do I cite generative AI [ChatGPT] in MLA style? (Note: Always follow your professor's instructions on the scope of using AI in your course.)

Citation Examples (MLA 9th ed.) - Journals & Magazines

Magazine article

Gliatto, Tom, et al. “1936-2017 Mary Tyler Moore. (Cover Story).” People, vol. 87, no. 7, Feb. 2017, pp. 54–62. EBSCOhost, Accessed 29 Apr. 2020.

Journal article with URL

Fowler, Cary. “A ‘Doomsday’ Seed Vault to Protect the World’s Diversity.” Journal of International Affairs, vol. 67, no. 2, Spring/Summer 2014, pp. 141–146. EBSCOhost,

For URLs the http:// or https:// at the beginning of the URL can be omitted unless you want to have a hyperlink. (See MLA Handbook, 9th ed. p. 195, [5.96])

Journal article with DOI

Monteith, Andrew. “Transhumanism, Utopia, and the Problem of the Real in Ready Player One.” Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, vol. 34, no. 1, Spr 2022, pp. 1–15. EBSCOhost,

Latham, Laura S., et al. “Chocolate-Guilty Pleasure or Healthy Supplement?” Journal of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 16, no. 2, Feb. 2014, pp. 101–106.  EBSCOhost, 

 Precede a DOI with (See MLA Handbook, 9th ed., p. 194, [5.93])

Print (hard copy) book

Allen, Joe, and Stephen K. Bannon. Dark Æon:Transhumanism and the War against Humanity. Skyhorse Publishing, 2023.


Johnson, Dru. What Hath Darwin to Do with Scripture? : Comparing Conceptual Worlds of the Bible and Evolution, InterVarsity Press, 2023. ProQuest Ebook Central,

In-Text Citations Without Page Numbers


(Smith 27) page number 27

When page numbers are not fixed (the page numbering is not the same in all formats) or not available, use a label identifying abbreviation for the number reference. Use a comma to separate the author from a reference that is not a page number.


(Smith, par. 6) paragraph 6
(Smith, pars. 6-7) paragraphs 6 and 7
(Smith, ch. 4) chapter 4

MLA Handbook, 8th edition (pp. 36, 123-127) - Call number opens new windowLB2369.G53 2016
The Little, Brown Handbook, 13th edition (pp. 638-640) - Call number opens new windowPE1112.F644 2016.

Additional MLA Resources

MLA Style Center (Modern Language Association)

To organize key elements in your citation, use the opens new windowMLA Interactive Practice Template from MLA Handbook (8th ed.), PDF, by the Modern Language Association (,

- opens new windowHow to cite an online video?
- opens new windowUsing MLA Format
- opens new windowWorks Cited: A Quick guide
- FAQs, MLA Style Center