Turabian Citation Examples

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The discipline of theology uses Chicago Style of citation. That style was popularized in a style book by Kate Turabian. Therefore, Chicago style became known as Turabian Style. This style is different from other disciplines like APA and MLA in that it uses footnotes for citations rather than in-text citations. The ORU School of Theology has a style manual that follows the Turabian/Chicago Style. For the most part there is no difference, however, schools often have in-house standards for things like margins and heading styles that have nothing to do with Turabian.

Turabian uses one format for the footnote and another for the bibliography. Pay attention to the differences in the name order between footnote to bibliography entries. Also note the punctuation is different.

  • Book and journal titles are always in italics.
  • Article and disseration titles are in quotes.
  • Titles also captialize all major words.

This guide will give you a few of the most common citations. To see more extensive lists, click on the Turabian logo at the top of this section for or view the Chicago Manual of Style Contents. (opens new window). The examples below are taken from sections of the Citation Quick Guide.

See also:

Books

Footnote:

        1. Katie Kitamura, A Separation (New York: Riverhead Books, 2017), 25.

        2. Sharon Sassler and Amanda Jayne Miller, Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017), 114.

Shortened note for subsequent citation:

        3. Kitamura, Separation, 91–92.

        4. Sassler and Miller, Cohabitation Nation, 205.

Bibliography:

Kitamura, Katie. A Separation. New York: Riverhead Books, 2017.

Sassler, Sharon, and Amanda Jayne Miller. Cohabitation Nation: Gender, Class, and the Remaking of Relationships. Oakland: University of California Press, 2017.

 

EBooks
Ebooks are cited same as print book except include the name of database, such as "ProQuest" or "Ebook Central." You do not use URL of the database where the book was found unless the book was on an external website, such as internet archive or Hathi Trust. For Kindle and EPub formats without page numbers, use chapter rather than location numbers.

Footnote:

        1. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment  (New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917), 444, https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

        2. Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001), 88, ProQuest Ebrary.

        3. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.

Shortened note for subsequent citation:

        4. Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, 504–5.

        5, Schlosser, Fast Food Nation, 100.

        6. Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.

Bibliography:

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. ProQuest Ebrary.

 

Journal Articles
Journal article citations do not need url's of where they were retrieved nor do they need the accessed date. However, if an article has a DOI, include that as is demonstrated below. In the footnote, the exact page number you are citing is used (23). In the bibliography, the range of pages for the whole article is use (1-24). Turabian does not use p. or pp. before the number.

Footnote:

       1. Ashley Hope Pérez, “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau,” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 874, https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.

        2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10.

        3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95.

Shortened note for subsequent citation:

        4. Pérez, “Material Morality,” 880–81.

        5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

        6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

Bibliography:

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34.

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109.

Pérez, Ashley Hope. “Material Morality and the Logic of Degrees in Diderot’s Le neveu de Rameau.” Modern Philology 114, no. 4 (May 2017): 872–98. https://doi.org/10.1086/689836.

 

Dissertations
Dissertations are cited with the name, title, degree, university information, and date. You also note the database (usually Proquest). But do not give URL's or any other numbers given by the database (such as order number in ProQuest).

Footnote:

        1. Guadalupe Navarro-Garcia, “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents” (PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016), 44, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Shortened note for subsequent citation:

        2. Navarro-Garcia, “Social Justice Values,” 125–26.

Bibliography:

Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2016. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Compare EBSCO and ORU Research & Writing Manual citation styles

View opens new windowarticle record for the example below.

Books

For a book in the library catalog, use the How do I Cite this? link (circled in the image below). Select the correct citation style, such as Chicago/Turabian, then copy/paste/edit the citation, as needed.

Library Catalog citation toolopens new window Go to the example.

Citations in EBSCOhost

For a single citation in an EBSCO database, click an article title to access the detailed record. Click the "cite" button under Tools and choose a citation style. Copy, paste, and edit the citation to match the Research & Writing Manual style requirements. (See the comparison provided on this page.)

EBSCO cite tool

For multiple citations use the EBSCO folder:
The EBSCO Folder is a personal information management tool to save articles, save searches, create citations lists, write notes, and more. Create a folder then sign in to your folder. Note: Items added to the default folder are NOT saved.

  1. After you add the articles to the folder, click Folder has items at the top of the page.
    In the folder:
  2. Click checkboxes to mark items to be cited.
  3. Click the Print icon (in the right toolbar).
    In the Print Manager window:
  4. Uncheck HTML Full Textbox and Search History, if showing and checked.
  5. Choose a Citation Format.
  6. Click Print (items are reformatted for printing). Print or cancel, then save or copy/paste/edit the citations.